Gaiectin-3 as a Potential Prognostic Biomarker for COVID-19 Disease: A Case-Control Study

Karsli, Emre
Metin, Damla Anabarli
Canacik, Omer
Sabirli, Ramazan
Kaymaz, Buse
Kurt, Ozgur
Koseler, Aylin
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Background Recent studies have investigated the importance of Galetin-3 in inflammation, fibrosis, cell proliferation, cardiac disease, diabetes, and tumor formation. Aims This study aims to investigate the role of the Galectin-3 level in the diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia and the value of the Galectin-3 level in predicting the clinical course of the patient. Methods This study employed a prospective, case-control study design and was conducted at Bakircay University Cigli Training and Research Hospital. A total of 100 patients (40 had moderate and 60 had severe/critical COVID-19 disease according to World Health Organisation guidelines) and 50 non-symptomatic healthy volunteers participated in the study. Blood samples were taken from patients at the time of hospital admission, after which serum was isolated. Following the isolation of serum, Galectin-3 levels were evaluated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results The serum Galectin-3 level was measured as 13.57 (10.9-16.4) ng/mL in the control group, 13.52 (10.69-16.6) ng/mL in the moderate disease group, and 11.65 (6.09-14.33) ng/mL in the severe/critical disease group. Serum Galectin-3 levels were significantly lower in the severe/critical disease group compared to the control and moderate disease groups (p=0.001 and p=0.019, respectively). Using ROC analysis, a larger area under the curve (AUC) for the serum Galectin-3 levels of the control group (AUC-0.622, 95\% CI =0.529-0.714
p=0.015) was calculated compared to the COVID-19 patient group for the diagnosis of COVID-19 disease. The Galectin-3 level was found to be 75\% sensitive and 50\% specific at a cut-off level of 11.3 ng/mL in predicting the need for ICU treatment. Conclusion Galectin-3 levels may be a beneficial biomarker in predicting the clinical severity of COVID-19 disease when used in conjunction with other known biomarkers, at the time of admission to the emergency department (ED).
Anahtar kelimeler
inflamation, clinical infectious disease, covid-19 pneumonia, covid-19, galectin-3